Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the moral action is the one that maximizes utility. Utility is defined in various ways, including as pleasure, economic well-being and the l...
Why Swimming With Dolphins Is A Bad Thing
Dr. Patty Khuly explains why those ubiquitous swimming-with-dolphins vacation experiences don't have these intelligent marine mammals' welfare at heart. Over the past few weeks, I’ve noticed that some...
Act utilitarianism
Act utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that a person's act is morally right if and only if it produces at least as much happiness as any other act that the person could perf...
Rule utilitarianism
Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a f...
Two-level utilitarianism
Two-level utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics developed by R. M. Hare.According to the theory, a person's moral decisions should be based on a set of 'intuitive' moral rules, except in ce...
Speciesism
Speciesism (/ˈspiːʃiːˌzɪzəm, -siːˌzɪz-/) involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership. The term is mostl...
Animal welfare
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals. The standards of "good" animal welfare vary considerably between different contexts. These standards are under constant review and are debated, created and...
Enlightened self-interest
Enlightened self-interest is a philosophy in ethics which states that persons who act to further the interests of others (or the interests of the group or groups to which they belong), ultimately serv...
Why Swimming With Dolphins Is A Bad Thing
Dr. Patty Khuly explains why those ubiquitous swimming-with-dolphins vacation experiences don't have these intelligent marine mammals' welfare at heart. Over the past few weeks, I’ve noticed that some...
Mohism
Mohism or Moism (Chinese: 墨家; pinyin: Mòjiā; literally: "School of Mo") was a Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Tzu (Master Mo), Latinized as Mi...
Consumer choice
In microeconomics, the theory of consumer choice relates preferences (for the consumption of both goods and services) to consumption expenditures; ultimately, this relationship between preferences and...
Henry Hazlitt
Henry Stuart Hazlitt (November 28, 1894 – July 9, 1993) was an American journalist who wrote about business and economics for such publications as The Wall Street Journal, The Nation, The American Mer...
Auguste Comte
Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857), better known as Auguste Comte ([oɡyst kɔ̃t]), was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociolog...
William Thompson (philosopher)
William Thompson (1775 – 28 March 1833) was an Irish political and philosophical writer and social reformer, developing from utilitarianism into an early critic of capitalist exploitation whose ideas ...
William Paley
William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805) was an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian. He is best known for his natural theology exposition of the teleological argum...
Mere addition paradox
The mere addition paradox, also known as the repugnant conclusion, is a problem in ethics, identified by Derek Parfit, and appearing in his book Reasons and Persons (1984). The paradox identifies an i...
Telishment
Telishment is a term coined by John Rawls to illustrate a problem of the utilitarian view of punishment. Telishment is an act by the authorities of punishing a suspect in order to deter future wrongdo...
Relation of Ideas
In philosophy, a relation is a type of fact that is true or false of two things. For instance, "being taller than" is a relation that is true of "Shaquille O'Neal and Ross Perot" and false of "the Emp...
Epicureanism
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democrit...
Epicurus
Epicurus (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/; Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicure...
Effingham Wilson
Effingham William Wilson (28 September 1785 - 9 June 1868) was a 19th-century English radical publisher and bookseller. His main interests were in economics and politics, but he also published poetry....
Hume's fork
Hume's fork is an explanation, developed by later philosophers, of David Hume's aggressive, 1730s division of "relations of ideas" from "matters of fact and real existence". On the necessary versus c...
Consequentialism
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thu...
J. J. C. Smart
John Jamieson Carswell "Jack" Smart AC (16 September 1920 – 6 October 2012) was an Australian philosopher and academic and was appointed as an Emeritus Professor by Australian National University Aust...
Consequentialist libertarianism
Consequentialist libertarianism (also known as libertarian consequentialism) refers to the libertarian position that is supportive of a free market and strong private property rights only on the groun...