Theodicy
Theodicy (/θiːˈɒdɪsi/), in its most common form, is the attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil. Theodicy attempts to resolve the evidential problem of evil ...
Consolation of Philosophy
The Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIÆ) is a work by the sixth-century philosopher Boethius that has been described as having had the single most important influence on ...
Divine command theory
Divine command theory is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action's status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God. The theory asserts that what is moral is determin...
Alvin Plantinga's free will defense
Alvin Plantinga's version of the free will defense is an attempt to refute the logical problem of evil: the argument that the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God in an evil worl...
Dialogue of Pessimism
The Dialogue of Pessimism is an ancient Mesopotamian dialogue between a master and his servant that expresses the futility of human action. It has parallels with biblical wisdom literature.
The Di...
Emil Fackenheim
Emil Ludwig Fackenheim (22 June 1916 – 18 September 2003) was a noted Jewish philosopher and Reform rabbi.Born in Halle, Germany, he was arrested by Nazis on the night of 9 November 1938, known as Kri...
Mandate of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven (Chinese: 天命; pinyin: tiānmìng) is an ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that Heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well a...
William of Ockham
William of Ockham (/ˈɒkəm/; also Occam; c. 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surre...
David Weiss Halivni
David Weiss Halivni (Hebrew: דוד וייס הלבני‎) (born 1927) is an American-Israeli rabbi, scholar in the domain of Jewish Sciences and professor of Talmud.
David Weiss was born in the smal...
Divine providence
In theology, divine providence, or providence, is God's intervention in the world. "Divine Providence" (usually capitalized) is also used as a title of God. A distinction is usually made between "gene...
Mnachem Risikoff
Mnachem (Mendel) HaKohen Risikoff (1866–1960), was an orthodox rabbi in Russia and the United States, and a prolific author of scholarly works, written in Hebrew. Risikoff used a highly stylized and...
Euthyphro dilemma
The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Plato's dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro, "Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by th...
Divine law
Divine law is any law that comes directly from the will of God, in contrast to man-made law. Like natural law (which may be seen as a manifestation of divine law) it is independent of the will of man,...
Irving Greenberg
Irving (Yitzchak) Greenberg (born 1933), also known as Yitz Greenberg, is a Modern Orthodox rabbi, Jewish-American scholar and author. He is known as a strong supporter of Israel and a promoter of gr...
Paul van Buren
Paul Matthews van Buren (1924–1998) was a Christian theologian and author. An ordained Episcopalian priest he was a Professor of religion at Temple University, Philadelphia for 22 years. He was a Dire...
Islamic ethics
Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century. It was eventually shaped as a succe...
Occasionalism
Occasionalism is a philosophical theory about causation which says that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events. Instead, all events are taken to be caused directly by God. (A related ...
Natural evil
Natural evil is evil for which “no non-divine agent can be held morally responsible for its occurrence.” By contrast, moral evil is “caused by human activity.” The fact of natural evil challenges, no...
Augustinian theodicy
The Augustinian theodicy, named for the fourth and fifth-century theologian and philosopher Augustine of Hippo, is a type of Christian theodicy designed in response to the evidential problem of evil. ...
Steven Schwarzschild
Steven S. Schwarzschild (1924–1989) was a rabbi, philosopher, theologian, and editor.
Schwarzschild was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany and grew up in Berlin. He escaped to the United States wi...
Jürgen Moltmann
Jürgen Moltmann (born 8 April 1926) is a German Reformed theologian who is Professor Emeritus of Systematic Theology at the University of Tübingen. Moltmann is a major figure in modern theology and wa...
Théodicée
Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme et l'origine du mal ("Essays of theodicy on the goodness of God, the freedom of man and the origin of evil"), more simply known as Théod...
Irenaean theodicy
The Irenaean theodicy is a Christian theodicy designed to respond to the problem of evil. As such, it defends the probability of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent (all-powerful and perfectly loving) Go...
Divine grace
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions. It has been defined as the divine influence which operates in humans to regenerate and sanctify, to inspire virtuous impulses, and to impa...
Ludlul bēl nēmeqi
Ludlul bel nemeqi, I Will Praise the Lord of Wisdom, is a Mesopotamian poem (ANET, pp. 434–437) written in Akkadian that concerns itself with the problem of the unjust suffering of an afflicted m...
Problem of evil
In the philosophy of religion, the problem of evil is the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of a deity who is, in either absolute or relative terms, omnipotent, omniscient, ...
Best of all possible worlds
The phrase "the best of all possible worlds" (French: le meilleur des mondes possibles; German: Die beste aller möglichen Welten) was coined by the German polymath Gottfried Leibniz in his 171...
Free will
Free will is the ability of agents to make choices unimpeded by certain prevailing factors. Such prevailing factors that have been studied in the past have included metaphysical constraints (such as l...
Omnibenevolence
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", and benevolent, meaning "good") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence". Some philosophers have argued that ...
Holocaust theology
Holocaust theology (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate concerning the role of God in the universe in...
Theomachist
Theomachist is a term used to refer to an individual who "resists God or the divine will." The term comes from the Greek words theos, meaning God and machē, meaning battle. Karl Marx was considered by...