Tawhid
Tawhid (Arabic: توحيد‎ tawḥīd, meaning doctrine of "the oneness" of God; also transliterated as Tawheed and Tauheed) is the concept of monotheism in Islam. It is the religion's most fundamen...
Names of God in Islam
The names of God in Islam (or the 99 names of Allah; Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى‎ ʾasmāʾ allāh al-ḥusnā) are the names by which Muslims regard God. Among other places, they are described in th...
Kalam cosmological argument
The Kalām cosmological argument (sometimes capitalized Kalām Cosmological Argument, or abbreviated KCA) is a modern defense (or re-formulation) of the cosmological argument for the existence of God ro...
Cosmological argument
The cosmological argument is a closely related set of arguments for the existence of a First Cause (or instead, an Uncaused cause) to the universe, and by extension often used as arguments for the exi...
Ontological argument
An ontological argument is a philosophical argument for the existence of God that uses ontology. Many arguments fall under the category of the ontological, and they tend to involve arguments about th...
Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting unt...
Athari
Athari (Classical Arabic: أثري; textualism) is a school or movement of traditionalist Islamic scholars who reject Islamic "theology" (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran. ...
Mu'tazili
Mu`tazila (Arabic: المعتزلة‎ al-muʿtazilah) is a school of Islamic theology based on reason and rational thought that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both in present-day Iraq,...
Ash'ari
Ash'arism or Ashʿari theology (/æʃəˈriː/; Arabic الأشعرية al-Asha`riyya or الأشاعرة al-Ashā`irah) is an early theological school of Islam (Sunni in particular) founded by Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari ...
Theology of Twelvers
The theology of Twelver Shias contains five Principles of the Religion known as Uṣūl ad-Dīn. Usul al-dín (أصول الدين) is an Arabic Islamic term which literally translates as 'foundation of the faith',...
Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy is the systematic investigation of problems connected with life, the universe, ethics, society, and so on as conducted in the Muslim world. Not all Islamic philosophers have been Mu...
Avicennism
Avicenna (/ˌævəˈsɛnə/; Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (Persian: پور سینا / ابن سینا‎‍; Arabic: ابن سینا‎‍), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ib...
Sufi cosmology
Sufi cosmology (Arabic: الكوزمولوجية الصوفية‎) is a general term for cosmological doctrines associated with the mysticism of Sufism. These may differ from place to place, order to order and ...
Sufi metaphysics
Major ideas in Sufi metaphysics have surrounded the concept of waḥdah (meaning "unity"). Two main Sufi philosophies prevail on this controversial topic. waḥdat al-wujūd literally means the "Unity of E...
Logic in Islamic philosophy
Logic (Arabic: منطق‎) plays an important role in Islamic philosophy. Islamic law placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam...
Münchhausen Trilemma
The Münchhausen trilemma is a term used in epistemology to stress the purported impossibility to prove any truth even in the fields of logic and mathematics. The name Münchhausen-Trilemma was coined ...
Astronomy in medieval Islam
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language. These d...
Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی‎ Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Fārābī; for other recorded variants of his name see below) , known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 87...
Physics in medieval Islam
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (s...
Averroism
Averroism is a school of Islamic philosophy that arose from the influence of the 12th century Al-Andalus Muslim philosopher Averroës, who worked on reconciling Aristotelianism with Islam. Alternativel...
Kalam
ʿIlm al-Kalām (Arabic: علم الكلام‎, literally "science of discourse"), often foreshortened to kalām, is an Islamic science born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic ...
Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyāmah (pronounced yome-ul-key-ah-mah; Arabic: يوم القيامة‎ "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (pronounc...
The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing (Arabic: کتاب الشفاء Kitab Al-Shifaʾ, Latin: Sufficientia) is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from ancient Persia, near Bukhara i...
Transcendent theosophy
Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’li (حكمت متعالي), the doctrine and philosophy developed by Persian philosopher Mulla Sadra is one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophy that is curr...
Gödel's ontological proof
Gödel's ontological proof is a formal argument for God's existence by the mathematician Kurt Gödel (1906–1978). It is in a line of development that goes back to Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109). St. ...
Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic...
Illuminationist philosophy
Illuminationism is a doctrine according to which the process of human thought needs to be aided by divine grace. It is the oldest and most influential alternative to naturalism in the theory of mind a...
Islamic metaphysics
Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, m...
Infinite universe theory
The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse. Many-worlds...
The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب‎ al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and completed in 1025. I...
Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800 - 1400)
This article covers the influence of Jewish and Islamic philosophy on each other, focusing especially on the period from 800–1400 CE.
A century after the Qur'an was revealed, numerous religious sc...