Cynicism
Cynic or Cynicism may mean:
Epicureanism
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democrit...
Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism (or Neo-Platonism) is a modern term used to designate a tradition of philosophy that arose in the 3rd century AD and persisted until shortly after the closing of the Platonic Academy in A...
Stoicism
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a...
Consolatio (Cicero)
Consolatio or "Consolation" is a lost work written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the year 45 BC. The work had been written to soothe his grief after the death of his daughter, Tullia, which had occurred...
De Divinatione
Cicero's De Divinatione (Latin, "Concerning Divination") is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 44 BC. It takes the form of a dialogue whose interlocutors are Cicero (speaking mostl...
Marsilio Ficino
Marsilio Ficino ([marˈsiljo fiˈtʃino]; Latin name Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist phil...
Cambridge Platonists
The Cambridge Platonists were a group of theologians and philosophers at the University of Cambridge in the middle of the 17th century. The leading figures were Ralph Cudworth and Henry More.
Mark...
Cynic epistles
The Cynic epistles are a collection of letters expounding the principles and practices of Cynic philosophy mostly written in the time of the Roman empire but purporting to have been written by much ea...
De Beneficiis
De Beneficiis [ Latin ] is a first-century work by Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – 65 AD). It forms part of a series of moral essays (or "Dialogues") composed by Seneca, whose other philosophical expl...
De Brevitate Vitae (Seneca)
De Brevitate Vitae (frequently referred to as On the Shortness of Life in English) is a moral essay written by Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoic philosopher, to his friend Paulinus. The philosopher br...
Nigidius Figulus
Publius Nigidius Figulus (c. 98 – 45 BC) was a scholar of the Late Roman Republic and one of the praetors for 58 BC. He was a friend of Cicero, to whom he gave his support at the time of the Catilinar...
De finibus bonorum et malorum
De finibus bonorum et malorum ("On the ends of good and evil") is a philosophical work by the Roman orator, politician and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero. It consists of five books, in which Cicer...
Ataraxia
"Ataraxia" (ἀταραξία, "tranquility") is a Greek term used by Pyrrho and Epicurus for a lucid state of robust tranquility, characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.
For Epicureanism...
Soter
Soter derives from the Greek epithet σωτήρ (sōtēr), meaning a saviour, a deliverer; initial capitalised Σωτήρ; fully capitalised ΣΩΤΗΡ; feminine Soteria (Σωτηρία). Soter has been used as:
Franciscus Patricius
Franciscus Patricius (Italian: Francesco Patrizi, Croatian: Frane Petrić; 25 April 1529 – 6 February 1597) was a philosopher and scientist from the Republic of Venice. He was known as a defender of Pl...
Hypatia
Hypatia (/haɪˈpeɪʃiə/ hy-PAY-sh(ee)ə or /haɪˈpætiə/ hy-PAT-ee-ə; Greek: Ὑπατία Hypatía) (born c. AD 350 – 370; died 415) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher in Egypt, then a part of...
Passing of Peregrinus
The Passing of Peregrinus or The Death of Peregrinus (Greek: Περὶ τῆς Περεγρίνου Τελευτῆς; Latin: De Morte Peregrini) is a satire by the Syrian Greek writer Lucian in which the lead character,...
Boethius
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (/boʊˈiːθiəs/; also Boetius /boʊˈiːʃəs/; c. 480–524 AD), was a philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born in Rome to the ancien...
Parrhesia
In rhetoric, parrhesia is a figure of speech described as: to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking. There are three different forms of parrhesia. Parrhesia is its nominal form, is tra...
Hermagoras of Amphipolis
Hermagoras of Amphipolis (Greek: Ἑρμαγόρας ὁ Ἀμφιπολίτης) (3rd century BC) was a Stoic philosopher, student of Cypriot Persaeus, in the court of Antigonus II Gonatas. He wrote several dialogues, among...
Adiaphora
Adiaphoron (plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα "indifferent things") is a concept of Stoic philosophy that indicates things outside of moral law—that is, actions that morality neither man...
Hortensius (Cicero)
Hortensius or "On Philosophy" is a lost dialogue written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the year 45 BC. The work taught that genuine human happiness is to be found by using and embracing philosophy. The ...
De Vita Beata
De Vita Beata ("On the Happy Life") is a dialogue written by Seneca the Younger around the year 58 AD. It was intended for his older brother Gallio, to whom Seneca also dedicated his dialogue entitled...