Reunification of Germany
The German reunification (German: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Ge...
Iron Curtain
The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term ...
Revolutions of 1989
The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The period is sometimes called the Autumn of Nat...
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no. 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, acknowledging the independence of the...
European integration
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe. European integration has primarily come about th...
New federal states
The new federal states of Germany (German: die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with ...
Romanian Revolution
The Romanian Revolution (Romanian: Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several Warsaw Pact coun...
Fall of communism in Albania
The fall of communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in December 1990 with student demonstrations. March 1991 elections left the formerly communist Party of Labour...
Economy of the European Union
The economy of the European Union generates a GDP (nominal) of about €14.303 trillion (US$18.451 trillion in 2014) and a GDP (PPP) of about €12.710 trillion (US$16.773 trillion in ...
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
The Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989, commonly known as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件) or '89 Democracy Movement (八九民运) in Chinese, were student-led popular demonstrations in Beijing which took pla...
1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Putsch or August Coup (Russian: Августовский путч Avgustovsky Putch), was a coup d'état attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Un...
Origins of the Cold War
The Origins of the Cold War are widely regarded to lie most directly in the relations between the Soviet Union and the allies (the United States, Great Britain and France) in the years 1945–1947...
Early 1990s recession
The recession of the early 1990s describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the world in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
While the Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mul...
Berlin airlift
The Berlin Blockade (1 April 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blo...
End of Communism in Poland (1989)
The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet communist dominance imposed after the end of World War II over what had become the Polish People's Republic. These years, while featu...
Czechoslovakian border fortifications during the Cold War
The protection of borders between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (CSSR) and so called Capitalist countries of Western Europe, namely with the West Germany and Austria, in the Cold War era and esp...
Decommunization
Decommunization is a process of dismantling the legacies of the communist state establishments, culture, and psychology in the post-communist states. It is sometimes referred to as political cleansing...
Decommunization in Russia
Decommunization in Russia is the process of dealing with the communist legacies in terms of institutions and personnel that tends towards breaking with the Soviet past. Compared with the efforts of th...
Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: Únor 1948, Slovak: Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Communist historiography known as "Victorious Februa...
Singing Revolution
The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The term was coined by an Estonian act...
Future enlargement of the European Union
The future enlargement of the European Union is theoretically open to any European country which is democratic, operates a free market and is willing and able to implement all previous European Uni...
Demographics of Germany
The demography of Germany is monitored by the "Statistisches Bundesamt" (Federal Statistical Office of Germany). According to the first census since the reunification, Germany's population was counted...
Economy of Germany
Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP (PPP). Since the age of industrialisation and beyond, the country has been a driver,...
Ostalgie
Ostalgie is a German term referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany. It is derived from the German words Ost (east) and Nostalgie (nostalgia).The term Ostalgie (along with the phrase ...
Schengen Area
The Schengen Area is the area comprising 26 European countries that have abolished passport and any other type of border control at their common borders, also referred to as internal borders. It mostl...
Eurosphere
The concept of the ‘Eurosphere’ or ‘European Empire’ has grown in popularity in the early years of the 21st century, and is associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard, the academic at the Un...
Military of the European Union
The military of the European Union comprises the various structures that have been established for cooperation between the armed forces of the member states. Within the legal framework of the union, a...
Visa policy in the European Union
The visa policy of the Schengen Area is set by the European Union and applies to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states without opt-outs. If someone other than a European Union, European Econ...