Reliability (semiconductor)
Reliability of semiconductor devices can be summarized as follows:Design factors affecting semiconductor reliability include: voltage derating, power derating, current derating, metastability, logic t...
Current crowding
Current crowding (also current crowding effect, or CCE) is a nonhomogenous distribution of current density through a conductor or semiconductor, especially at the vicinity of the contacts and over the...
Electromigration
Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms. The effect...
Electrostatic discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown. A buildup of static electricit...
Hot-carrier injection
Hot carrier injection (HCI) is a phenomenon in solid-state electronic devices where an electron or a “hole” gains sufficient kinetic energy to overcome a potential barrier necessary to break an inte...
Latchup
A latchup is a type of short circuit which can occur in an integrated circuit (IC). More specifically it is the inadvertent creation of a low-impedance path between the power supply rails of a MOSFET ...
Radiation damage
This article deals with Radiation damage due to ionizing radiation on physical objects.
This radiation may take several forms:
SILC (semiconductors)
Stress Induced Leakage Current (SILC) is an increase in the gate leakage current of a MOSFET, due to defects created in the gate oxide during electrical stressing. SILC is perhaps the largest factor i...
Thermal runaway
Thermal runaway refers to a situation where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result. It is a kin...
Time-dependent gate oxide breakdown
Time-dependent gate oxide breakdown (or time-dependent dielectric breakdown, TDDB) is a failure mechanism in MOSFETs, when the gate oxide breaks down as a result of long-time application of relatively...
Burn-in
Burn-in is the process by which components of a system are exercised prior to being placed in service (and often, prior to the system being completely assembled from those components). This testing pr...
QBD (electronics)
QBD is the term applied to the charge-to-breakdown measurement of a semiconductor device. It is a standard destructive test method used to determine the quality of gate oxides in MOS devices. It is eq...
Failure analysis
Failure analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure. It is an important discipline in many branches of manufacturing industry, such as the electronics ...
Radiation hardening
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiatio...
Fault-tolerant design
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. If its operating quality decr...
Negative-bias temperature instability
Negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) is a key reliability issue in MOSFETs. NBTI manifests as an increase in the threshold voltage and consequent decrease in drain current and transconductance...
Failure modes of electronics
Electronic components have a wide range of failure modes. These can be classified in various ways, such as by time or cause. Failures can be caused by excess temperature, excess current or voltage, io...
Comparison of embedded computer systems on board the Mars rovers
The embedded computer systems on board the Mars rovers sent by NASA must withstand the high radiation levels and large temperature changes in space. For this reason their computational resources are l...
Corona discharge
In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Spontaneous corona discharges occur natural...
List of LED failure modes
The most common way for LEDs (and diode lasers) to fail is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. Sudden failures, however rare, can occur as well. Early red LEDs were notable fo...
Electrical breakdown
Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is a rapid reduction in the resistance of an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage. This results in a porti...
Brush discharge
A brush discharge is a type of corona discharge that takes place between two electrodes embedded in a nonconducting medium (e.g., air at atmospheric pressure) and is characterized by nonsparking, fain...
Light-emitting diode
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a pn-junction diode, which emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able ...
Redundancy (engineering)
In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe.I...
Feedback-controlled electromigration
Feedback-controlled electromigration (FCE) is an experimental technique to investigate the phenomenon known as electromigration. By controlling the voltage applied as the conductance varies it is poss...
Catastrophic optical damage
Catastrophic optical damage (COD), or catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD), is a failure mode of high-power semiconductor lasers. It occurs when the semiconductor junction is overloaded by exceed...