Pre-Socratic philosophy
Pre-Socratic philosophy is Greek philosophy before Socrates (and includes schools contemporary with Socrates that were not influenced by him). In Classical antiquity, the Presocratic philosophers were...
Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism was the system of esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics, music and astronomy. Pythago...
Melissus of Samos
Melissus of Samos (/məˈlɪsəs/; Greek: Μέλισσος; fl. 5th century BC) was the third and last member of the ancient school of Eleatic philosophy, whose other members included Zeno and Parmenides. Lit...
Protagoras
Protagoras (/proʊˈtæɡərəs/; Greek: Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and is numbered as one of the sophists by Plato. In his dialogue, Protagoras, Plato credits ...
Ionian School (philosophy)
The Ionian school, a type of Greek philosophy centred in Miletus, Ionia in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, is something of a misnomer. Although Ionia was a centre of Western philosophy, the scholars i...
Sacred geometry
Sacred geometry is the geometry used in the design and construction of religious structures such as churches, temples, mosques, religious monuments, altars, tabernacles; as well as for sacred spaces s...
Unit-point atomism
According to some twentieth-century philosophers, unit-point atomism was the philosophy of the Pythagoreans, a conscious repudiation of Parmenides and the Eleatics. It stated that atoms were infinites...
Hermann Alexander Diels
Hermann Alexander Diels ([diːls]; May 18, 1848 – June 4, 1922) was a German classical scholar.
He was educated at the universities of Bonn and Berlin and in 1886 became professor ordinarius of cla...
Bolus of Mendes
Bolus of Mendes (Greek: Βῶλος Bolos; fl. 3rd century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a neo-Pythagorean writer of works of esoterica and medical works, who worked in Ptolemaic Egypt. The Suda, an...
Melissa (philosopher)
Melissa (3rd century BC) was a Pythagorean philosopher. Her name derives from the Greek word melli meaning honey.Nothing is known about her life. She is known only from a letter written to another wom...
Metrodorus of Cos
Metrodorus of Cos (Greek: Μητρόδωρος τῆς Κῶ; fl. c. 460 BC) was the son of Epicharmus. Like several of his family he addicted himself partly to the study of Pythagorean philosophy, partly to the s...
Thales
Thales of Miletus (/ˈθeɪliːz/; Greek: Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; c. 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor and one of the Seven Sages of Greece...
Pherecydes of Syros
Pherecydes of Syros (/fəˈrɛsɨˌdiːz/; Φερεκύδης; fl. 6th century BC) was a Greek thinker from the island of Syros. Pherecydes authored a cosmogony, derived from three divine principles, Zas (Zeus), Ct...
Material monism
Material monism is a Presocratic belief which provides an explanation of the physical world by saying that all of the world's objects are composed of a single element. Among the material monists were ...
Anaximander
Anaximander (/əˌnæksɨˈmændər/; Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia (in modern-day Turkey). He belonged to t...
Druze
The Druze (/druːz/; Arabic: درزي‎ derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz; Hebrew: דרוזים‎, druzim) are a monotheistic religious and social community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israe...
John Burnet (classicist)
John Burnet (/bərˈnɛt, ˈbɜrnɪt/; 9 December 1863 – 26 May 1928) was a Scottish classicist. John Burnet may also refer to the University of St Andrews hall that was named in his honour, John Burne...
Hermotimus of Clazomenae
Hermotimus of Clazomenae (c. 6th century BCE), called by Lucian a Pythagorean, was a philosopher who first proposed, before Anaxagoras (according to Aristotle) the idea of mind being fundamental in th...
Dyad (Greek philosophy)
The Dyad is a title used by the Pythagoreans for the number two, representing the principle of "twoness" or "otherness".Numenius of Apamea, a Neopythagorean philosopher in the latter 2nd century CE,...
Pythagoras
Pythagoras of Samos (/pɪˈθæɡərəs/; /paɪˈθæɡərəs/; Greek: Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος Pythagóras ho Sámios "Pythagoras the Samian", or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek; c. 570 – c. 495 BC) ...
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (German: Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen) is an incomplete book by Friedrich Nietzsche. He had a clean copy made from his notes with the...
Abderites
Abderites or Abderite may refer to:
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the elder)
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (Greek: Μητρόδωρος Λαμψακηνός, Mētrodōros Lampsakēnos; 5th century BC) was a Presocratic philosopher from the Greek town of Lampsacus on the eastern shore of the Hellespont...
Ephesian school
Ephesian school sometimes refers to the philosophical thought of the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who considered that the being of all the universe is fire. According to him, the b...
Theano (philosopher)
Theano (Greek: Θεανώ; fl. 6th-century BC) is the name given to perhaps two Pythagorean philosophers. She has been called the pupil, daughter and wife of Pythagoras, although others made her the wi...
Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum
Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum (FPG) is a three-volume collection of fragments of ancient Greek philosophers. It was edited by the German scholar, Friedrich Wilhelm August Mullach, and published i...
Paired opposites
Paired opposites are an ancient, pre-Socratic method of establishing thesis, antithesis and synthesis in terms of a standard for what is right and proper in natural philosophy.
From the very begin...
Heraclitus
Heraclitus of Ephesus (/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/; Greek: Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Io...
On Nature (Heraclitus)
On Nature is a philosophical treatise written by Heraclitus. According to Diogenes, it was divided into three discourses; one on the universe, another on politics (and ethics), and one on theology. T...