Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236 – 1311) (Persian: قطب‌الدین محمود بن مسعود شیرازی‎) was a 13th-century Persian polymath and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, ph...
Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
Kamal al-Din Hasan ibn Ali ibn Hasan al-Farisi or Abu Hasan Muhammad ibn Hasan (1267– 12 January 1319, long assumed to be 1320)) (Persian: كمال‌الدين فارسی‎) was a prominent Persian born in Tab...
Ibn Sahl
Ibn Sahl (Arabic: ابن سهل‎) (Abu Saʿd al-ʿAlaʾ ibn Sahl ) (Arabic: أبو سعد العلاء ابن سهل‎) (c. 940–1000) was a Muslim Persian mathematician, physicist and optics engineer of the I...
Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی‎ Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Fārābī; for other recorded variants of his name see below) , known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 87...
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Umar ibn al-Husayn at-Taymi al-Bakri at-Tabaristani Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi (Arabic:أبو عبدالله محمد بن عمر بن الحسن بن الحسين بن علي التيمي البكري فخرالدین الرازی ), most commo...
Al-Birjandi
Abd Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Husayn Birjandi (Persian: عبدعلی مممدبن حسین بیرجندی‎) (died 1528) was a prominent 16th-century Persian astronomer, mathematician and physicist who lived in Birjand, Ira...
Al-Khazini
Abu al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansour al-Khāzini or simply Abu al-Fath Khāzini (Arabic: أبو الفتح الخازني‎, Persian: ابولفتح خازنی‎) (flourished 1115–1130) was a Muslim astronomer of Persi...
Alhazen
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم‎), frequently referred to as Ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: ابن الهيثم, Latinized as Alhazen or Alhacen; c. ...
Castle clock
Clock towers are a common sight in many parts of the world with some being iconic buildings like the one in London commonly called 'Big Ben' (although it is correctly called the Elizabeth Tower as Big...
Averroes
Averroës (/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/; April 14, 1126 – December 10, 1198) is the Latinized form of Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد‎), full name ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rušd (أبو الوليد محمد ابن ا...
Banū Mūsā
The Banū Mūsā brothers ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century) and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ib...
Book of Optics
The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitāb al-Manāẓir‎ (كتاب المناظر); Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study compo...
Tafsir al-Kabir (al-Razi)
Tafsir al-Kabir ("The Large Commentary", also known as Mafatih al-Ghayb, "Keys to the Unknown") is a classical Islamic Tafsir book, written by the well-known Persian Islamic theologian and philosopher...
Averroism
Averroism is a school of Islamic philosophy that arose from the influence of the 12th century Al-Andalus Muslim philosopher Averroës, who worked on reconciling Aristotelianism with Islam. Alternativel...
Ali Qushji
Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed (1403 – 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: علی قوشچی, kuşçu - falconer in Turkish; Latin: Ali Kushgii) was an astronomer, mathe...
Al-Jazari
Badi'al-Zaman Abū al-'Izz ibn Ismā'īl ibn al-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136–1206) (Arabic: بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري‎) was a Muslim polymath: a scholar, invent...
Elephant clock
The elephant clock was a medieval invention by al-Jazari (1136–1206), consisting of a weight powered water clock in the form of an Asian elephant. The various elements of the clock are in the housing ...