Philosophy of science
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Scientific method
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Knowledge
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Scientific modelling
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Epistemology
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Problem solving
Analysis
Reasoning
Concepts in epistemology
Statistical inference
Abstraction
Philosophical methodology
Unreasonable
Reason
Causal inference
Inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning or abductive reasoning) is reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion...
Problem of induction
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Statistical syllogism
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Argument from analogy
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Causality
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Inductive fallacies
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Mathematical induction
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Probability and statistics
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Scientific theory
Problem of induction
The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, since it focuses on the lack of justification fo...
Statistical syllogism
A statistical syllogism (or proportional syllogism or direct inference) is a non-deductive syllogism. It argues, using inductive reasoning, from a generalization true for the most part to a particular...
Argument from analogy
Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is...
Causality
Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a physical consequence of the first.In c...
Causality - Wikipedia
Inductive fallacies
Mathematical induction
Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish a given statement for all natural numbers. It is a form of direct proof, and it is done in two steps. The first ste...
Mathematical induction - Wikipedia
Probability and statistics
Probability and statistics are two related but separate academic disciplines. Statistical analysis often uses probability distributions, and the two topics are often studied together. However, probabi...
Scientific theory
A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and e...
Scientific theory - Wikipedia
Transferable belief model
The transferable belief model (TBM) is an elaboration on the Dempster–Shafer theory of evidence.
Consider the following classical problem of information fusion. A patient has an illness that can b...
Pessimistic induction
In the philosophy of science, the pessimistic induction, also known as the pessimistic meta-induction, is an argument which seeks to rebut scientific realism, particularly the scientific realist's no...
Karma
Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म; [ˈkərmə]; Pali: kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the principle of causality where intent and actions of an individual influence the future of that in...
Karma - Wikipedia
Causal model
A causal model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation.Judea Pearl defines a c...
False analogy
Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is...
Semantic change
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage — usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usa...
Outline of probability
The following outline is provided as an overview and guide to probability:Probability – measure of the likeliness that an event will occur. Probability is used to quantify an attitude of mind to...
Support curve
Support curve is a statistical term, coined by A. W. F. Edwards, to describe the graph of the natural logarithm of the likelihood function. The function being plotted is used in the computation of the...
McNamara fallacy
The McNamara fallacy (also known as quantitative fallacy), named for Robert McNamara, the United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, involves making a decision based solely on quantitative ...
Concomitant (statistics)
In statistics, the concept of a concomitant, also called the induced order statistic, arises when one sorts the members of a random sample according to corresponding values of another random sample.Le...
Imperfect induction
The imperfect induction is the process of inferring from a sample of a group to what is characteristic of the whole group.
Rule induction
Rule induction is an area of machine learning in which formal rules are extracted from a set of observations. The rules extracted may represent a full scientific model of the data, or merely represen...
Notation in probability and statistics
Probability theory and statistics have some commonly used conventions, in addition to standard mathematical notation and mathematical symbols.
Misleading vividness
Misleading vividness (also known as anecdotal fallacy) is anecdotal evidence describing an occurrence with sufficient detail to permit hasty generalizations about the occurrence. It may be used, for e...
Reflective equilibrium
Reflective equilibrium is a state of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments. Although ...
Inverse resolution
Inverse resolution is an inductive reasoning technique that involves inverting the resolution operator.
Inverse resolution
Inductive reasoning aptitude
Inductive reasoning aptitude (also called differentiation or inductive learning ability) measures how well a person can identify a pattern within a large amount of data. It involves applying the rules...
Structural induction
Structural induction is a proof method that is used in mathematical logic (e.g., in the proof of Łoś' theorem), computer science, graph theory, and some other mathematical fields. It is a generalizat...
Difference in differences
Difference in differences (sometimes 'Difference-in-Differences', 'DID', or 'DD') is a statistical technique used in econometrics and quantitative sociology, which attempts to mimic an experimental r...
Difference in differences - Wikipedia
Chemistry theories
Selection bias
Selection bias refers to the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis such that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of th...
Questionable cause
The questionable cause – also known as causal fallacy, false cause, or non causa pro causa ("non-cause for cause" in Latin) – is a category of informal fallacies in which a cause is incorrectly identi...