How to MINE OPAL gems in the OUTBACK
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The Moon Once Had Fountains Of FIRE From Lava Eruptions
US scientists have found traces of carbon in volcanic glass collected from the Apollo missions, and say this volatile gas may have caused fountains of fire on the moon. The moon's surface was hot and ...
Martian Glass: Window Into Possible Past Life?
Researchers from Brown University have used satellite data to detect deposits of glass within impact craters on Mars. Though formed in the searing heat of a violent impact, the glasses just might prov...
Opals are Some of the Most Beautiful and Diverse Gemstones
It's like a magical world inside each one.
Spectacular Crystal Opal Looks Like a Handheld Aquarium
Crystals and gems are revered and collected for their physical beauty and monetary value and this Opal Butte crystal with contra luz color is no exception...
Australite
Australites are tektites found in Australia. They are mostly dark or black, and have shapes including discs and bowls that are not seen in other tektites. NASA used the shape of "flanged button" austr...
Limu o Pele
Limu o Pele or Pele's seaweed (Hawaiian, literally, "seaweed of Pele", after Pele the Hawaiian fire goddess of volcanoes) is a geological term for thin sheets and subsequently shattered flakes of brow...
The Moon Once Had Fountains Of FIRE From Lava Eruptions
US scientists have found traces of carbon in volcanic glass collected from the Apollo missions, and say this volatile gas may have caused fountains of fire on the moon. The moon's surface was hot and ...
Martian Glass: Window Into Possible Past Life?
Researchers from Brown University have used satellite data to detect deposits of glass within impact craters on Mars. Though formed in the searing heat of a violent impact, the glasses just might prov...
Shatter cone
Shatter cones are rare geological features that are only known to form in the bedrock beneath meteorite impact craters or underground nuclear explosions. They are evidence that the rock has been subje...
Tektite
Tektites (from Greek τηκτός "tēktos", molten) are gravel-size bodies composed of black, green, brown or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during extraterrestrial impacts. They ...
Lechatelierite
Lechatelierite is silica glass, amorphous SiO2. One common way in which lechatelierite forms naturally is by very high temperature melting of quartz sand during a lightning strike. The result is an ir...
Apache tears
Apache tears are rounded nodules of obsidian (volcanic black glass) with diameter from about 0.5 to 5 cm. An Apache tear looks opaque by reflected light, but translucent when held up to light. ...
Sideromelane
Sideromelane is a vitreous basaltic volcanic glass, usually occurring in palagonite tuff, for which it is characteristic. It is a less common form of tachylite, with which it usually occurs together; ...
Pele's hair
Pele's hair /ˈpeɪleɪz ˈhɛər/ is volcanic glass threads or fibers formed when small particles of molten material are thrown into the air and spun out by the wind into long hair-like strands. The diamet...
Coesite
Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide SiO2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature (700 °C or 1,300 °F), are applied to quartz. C...
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond (/daɪ(ə)mənd/; from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered...
Edeowie glass
Edeowie glass is a slag-like, opaque rare natural glass found as vesicular or in sheet-like masses in a semi-continuous swath in baked sediment, about 55 km long and 10 km wide along the wes...
Obsidian
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian is com...
Moldavite
Moldavite (Czech: Vltavín) is an olive-green or dull greenish vitreous substance possibly formed by a meteorite impact, which would make it one kind of tektite. They were introduced to the scienti...
Iridium
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is generally credited with being the second dense...
Glass with embedded metal and sulfides
Glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS) are tiny spheroids in cosmic dust particles with bulk compositions that are approximately chondritic. They form the building blocks of anhydrous interplan...
Trinitite
Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico....
Darwin glass
Darwin glass is a natural glass found south of Queenstown in West Coast, Tasmania. It takes its name from Mount Darwin in the West Coast Range, where it was first reported, and later gave its name to ...
Chivay obsidian source
The Chivay obsidian source (71.5355° S, 15.6423° W, 4972 masl) is the geological origin of a chemical group of obsidian that is found throughout the south-central Andean highlands including southern P...
Georgiaite
Georgiaite is a form or type of tektite. They are found in part of the 34-million-year-old North American strewnfield coming from the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Two strewnfields and tektite groups ...
Shock metamorphism
Shock metamorphism or impact metamorphism describes the effects of shock-wave related deformation and heating during impact events. The formation of similar features during explosive volcanism is gene...
Vitrified sand
Vitrified sand is sand that has been heated to a high enough temperature as to partly melt the silicon dioxide or quartz that is the main ingredient of common sand. When sand is used to make glass, so...