Evidence
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion. This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an...
Legal burden of proof
The burden of proof (Latin: onus probandi) is the imperative on a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will shift the conclusion away from the default position to one's own position.The b...
Philosophic burden of proof
The philosophical burden of proof or onus (probandi) is the obligation on a party in an epistemic dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position.
When debating any issue, there is an imp...
Scientific evidence
Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Such evidence is expected to be empirical evidence and in accordance with scientific method...
Evidence (law)
The law of evidence encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the trier of...
Evidence-based practices
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach to clinical practice that has been gaining ground following its formal introduction in 1992. It started in medicine as evidence-based med...
Testimony
In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.
The words "testimony" and "testify" both have a root in the Latin testis, referring to the notion of a third ...
Secondary research
Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research...
Knowledge broker
A Knowledge broker is an intermediary (an organization or a person), that aims to develop relationships and networks with, among, and between producers and users of knowledge by providing linkages, kn...
Perjury
Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or of falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to an o...
Consilience
In science and history, consilience (also convergence of evidence or concordance of evidence) refers to the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can "converge" to strong conclus...
Cross-examination
In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent. It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan k...
Peace Testimony
Peace testimony, or testimony against war, is a shorthand description of the action generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) for peace and against participation in war....
IDEAL framework
IDEAL (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study) is a framework for describing the stages of innovation in surgery and other interventional procedures. The purpose of IDEAL is to im...
Testimony in Jewish law
Testimony in Jewish law consists of testimony by eligible witnesses to a Beit Din (court) authorized to render decisions according to halakhah (Jewish law). Eligible witnesses must in almost all cases...
Guidelines International Network
The Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is an international scientific association of organisations and individuals interested and involved in development and application of evidence-based guide...
Peer instruction
Peer instruction is an evidence-based, interactive teaching method developed by Harvard Professor Eric Mazur in the early 1990s. Originally used to improve learning in introductory undergraduate physi...
Empirical research
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kin...
Anecdotal evidence
The expression anecdotal evidence refers to evidence from anecdotes. Because of the small sample, there is a larger chance that it may be unreliable due to cherry-picked or otherwise non-representativ...
Eyewitness
Eyewitness or Eye witness may refer to:
Reasonable doubt
Evidence that is beyond reasonable doubt is the standard of evidence required to validate a criminal conviction in most adversarial legal systems.Generally the prosecutor bears the burden of proof and...
Testimony of Simplicity
The testimony of simplicity is a shorthand description of the actions generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) to testify or bear witness to their beliefs that a person...
Lies (evidence)
Lies, on their own, are not sufficient evidence of a crime though in some situations they may themselves be a crime—making false statements, fraud, false advertising, perjury. However, lies may indica...
Self-evidence
In epistemology (theory of knowledge), a self-evident proposition is one that is known to be true by understanding its meaning without proof.Some epistemologists deny that any proposition can be self-...
Smoking gun
The term "smoking gun" was originally, and is still primarily, a reference to an object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act, just short of being caught in flagrante de...
Beyond the shadow of a doubt
Evidence that is beyond reasonable doubt is the standard of evidence required to validate a criminal conviction in most adversarial legal systems.Generally the prosecutor bears the burden of proof and...
Policy-based evidence making
"Policy-based evidence making" is a pejorative term which refers to the commissioning of research in order to support a policy which has already been decided upon. The name has been suggested as a cor...
Eyewitness testimony
Eyewitness testimony is the account a bystander gives in the courtroom, describing what that person observed that occurred during the specific incident under investigation. Ideally this recollection o...
Patient safety
Patient safety is a new healthcare discipline that emphasizes the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical error that often leads to adverse healthcare events. The frequency and magnitude of avo...