Myazedi inscription
Myazedi inscription (Burmese: မြဇေတီ ကျောက်စာ [mja̰ zèdì tɕaʊʔ sà]; also Yazakumar Inscription or the Gubyaukgyi Inscription), inscribed in 1113, is the oldest surviving stone inscription of the B...
Kedukan Bukit inscription
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, Indonesia on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi...
Atakur inscription
The Atakur inscription (sometimes spelt Athakur, Athagur, Athkur, Atkur or Atukur) dated 949-950 C.E. is an inscribed memorial stone (Hero stone) with classical Kannada composition inscription. It wa...
Abrogans
Abrogans, also German Abrogans or Codex Abrogans (St Gall, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. 911), is a Middle Latin–Old High German glossary, whose preserved copy in the Abbey Library of St Gall is regarded as ...
Il Cantilena
Il Cantilena is the oldest known literary text in the Maltese language. It dates from the 15th century (no later than 1485, the death of its author, and probably from the 1470s) but was not found unti...
Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena
The Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena, dated to the 7th century, is one of the early poetic inscriptions in the Kannada language. The inscription extols saint Nandisena of Shravanabelagola (a ...
Book of Henryków
The Book of Henryków (Polish: Księga henrykowska, Latin: Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau) is a Latin chronicle of the Cistercian abbey in Henryków in Lower Siles...
Gezer calendar
The Gezer calendar is a small inscribed limestone tablet discovered in the ancient Canaanite city of Gezer, 20 miles west of Jerusalem. It is commonly dated to the 10th-century BCE, although its ident...
Iruña-Veleia
Veleia was a Roman town in Hispania, now located in the Basque Country, Spain. The site is located in the municipality of Iruña de Oca, 10 kilometers west of Vitoria. The town was an important st...
Neacșu's letter
The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung (Romanian: Scrisoarea lui Neacșu de la Câmpulung), written in 1521, is the oldest surviving document available in Romanian that can be reliably dated. Written using C...
Funeral Sermon and Prayer
The Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Hungarian: Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) is the oldest known and surviving contiguous Hungarian text, written by one scribal hand in the Latin script and dating to 11...
Birch bark letter no. 292
The birch bark letter given the document number 292 is the oldest known document in any Finnic language. The document is dated to the beginning of the 13th century. It was found in 1957 by a Soviet ex...
Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany
The Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany is a document known for including the oldest written words in the Hungarian language. The document, dated to 1055, lists the lands the king donated to t...
Duenos Inscription
The Duenos inscription is one of the earliest known Old Latin texts, variously dated from the 7th to the 5th century BCE. It is inscribed on the sides of a kernos, in this case a trio of small globula...
Abckiria
Abckiria (also sometimes spelled ABC-kiria, and spelled "ABC-kirja" in modern Finnish), in English "The ABC book", is the first book that was published in the Finnish language. It was written by Mikae...
Salic law
Salic law (/ˈsælɨk/ or /ˈseɪlɨk/; Latin: Lex Salica), or Salian Law, is an ancient Germanic law code and was the major body of Frankish law governing all the Franks of Frankia under the rule of it...
Hebban olla vogala
Hebban olla vogala, sometimes spelt hebban olla uogala, are the first three words of an 11th-century text fragment written in Old Dutch. The fragment was discovered in 1932 on the flyleaf of a manuscr...
List of languages by first written accounts
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language. It does not include undeciphered scripts, though there are va...
Nestor's Cup
The term Cup of Nestor or Nestor's Cup can refer to:
The Iliad of Homer describes a magnificent golden cup (depas) that belongs to Nestor, the king of Pylos:(translation by Ian Johnston)
Cartularios de Valpuesta
The Cartularies of Valpuesta are two medieval Spanish cartularies which belonged to a monastery in the locality of Valpuesta in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. They contain a series ...
Terra salica
Terra salica was a legal term used in the Salian code. It referred to land that could be passed on to male heirs alone, and could not be sold or otherwise disposed. In other words, it was not aliena...
Utendi wa Tambuka
Utend̠i wa Tambuka or Utenzi wa Tambuka ("The Story of Tambuka"), also known as Kyuo kya Hereḳali (the book of Heraclius), is an epic poem in the Swahili language, dated 1728. It is one of the earlies...
Kievian Letter
The Kievian Letter is an early 10th-century (ca. 930) letter long thought to be written by a Khazarian Jewish community in Kiev. The letter, a Hebrew-language recommendation written on behalf of one m...
Freising Manuscripts
The Freising manuscripts (also Freising folia, Freising fragments, or Freising monuments; German: Freisinger Denkmäler, Latin: Monumenta Frisingensia, Slovene: Brižinski spomeniki or Briži...
Novgorod Codex
The Novgorod Codex (Russian: Новгородский кодекс) is the oldest book of the Rus’, unearthed on July 13, 2000 in Novgorod. It is a palimpsest consisting of three bound wooden tablets containing fou...
Västgötalagen
Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in Latin script and the oldest of all Swedish provincial laws. It was compiled in the early 13th century, probably at least par...
Dipylon inscription
The Dipylon inscription is a short text written on an ancient Greek pottery vessel dated to ca. 740 BC. It is famous for being the oldest (or one of the oldest) known samples of the use of the Greek a...
Doddahundi nishidhi inscription
The Doddahundi nishidhi and inscription is a hero stone from Doddahundi, 18 km from Tirumakudalu Narasipura in the Mysore district, Karnataka state, India. It has an undated old Kannada language ...
Oaths of Strasbourg
The Oaths of Strasbourg, were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 Februar...
Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga (Kannada: ಕವಿರಾಜಮಾರ್ಗ) (850 C.E.) is the earliest available work on rhetoric, poetics and grammar in the Kannada language. It was written by the famous Rashtrakuta King "Nrupatunga" ...