Cosmic inflation
In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is the exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10 seconds after the ...
The Case For Spectral Distortions In The Cosmic Microwave Background
Half a century ago, astronomers got their first look at the infant universe: a haze of soft light that suffused the entire sky. This cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation seemed to indicate that...
Metric expansion of space
The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. This is diffe...
Horizon problem
The horizon problem is a problem with the standard cosmological model of the Big Bang which was identified in the late 1960s, primarily by Charles Misner. It points out that different regions of the u...
Flatness problem
The flatness problem (also known as the oldness problem) is a cosmological fine-tuning problem within the Big Bang model of the Universe. Such problems arise from the observation that some of the init...
Chaotic inflation
Eternal Inflation is an inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory. In theories of eternal inflation, the inflationary phase of the Universe's expans...
BICEP and Keck Array
BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) and the Keck Array are a series of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. They aim to measure the polarization of the CMB; in pa...
Non-minimally coupled inflation
Non-minimally coupled inflation is an inflationary model in which the constant which couples gravity to the inflaton field is not small. The coupling constant is usually represented by (Xi), which fe...
False vacuum
In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a metastable sector of space that appears to be a perturbative vacuum, but is unstable due to instanton effects that may tunnel to a lower energy state. This...
Vacuum state
In quantum field theory, the vacuum state (also called the vacuum) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. Zero-point field is sometimes use...
Eternal inflation
Eternal Inflation is an inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory. In theories of eternal inflation, the inflationary phase of the Universe's expans...
E-folding
In science, e-folding is the time interval in which an exponentially growing quantity increases by a factor of e; it is the base-e analog of doubling time. This term is often used in many areas of sci...
Quantum noise
In physics, quantum noise refers to the uncertainty of a physical quantity, due to its quantum origin. In certain situations, quantum noise appears as shot noise; for example, most optical communicati...
Quantum tunnelling
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount. This plays an ...
Inflation (cosmology)
In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is the exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10 seconds after the ...
Superfluid vacuum theory
Superfluid vacuum theory (SVT), sometimes known as the BEC vacuum theory, is an approach in theoretical physics and quantum mechanics where the fundamental physical vacuum (non-removable background) i...
Cosmic gravitational wave background
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation left over from the "Big Bang" of cosmology. In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiatio...
Inflationary epoch
In physical cosmology the inflationary epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when, according to inflation theory, the Universe underwent an extremely rapid exponential expansion....
Primordial fluctuations
Primordial fluctuations are density variations in the early universe which are considered the seeds of all structure in the Universe. Currently, the most widely accepted explanation for their origin i...
Zero-point energy
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mec...
Inflaton
According to inflation theory, the inflaton is a scalar field that is responsible for cosmic inflation in the very early universe. A quantized particle for this field is expected, similar to other qua...
Unruh effect
The hypothetical Unruh effect (or sometimes Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect) is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe black-body radiation where an inertial observer would observe none...
Chaotic Inflation theory
Eternal Inflation is an inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory. In theories of eternal inflation, the inflationary phase of the Universe's expans...
Density contrast
The Density Contrast is a parameter used in galaxy formation to indicate where there are local enhancements in matter density. It is believed that after inflation, although the universe was mostly un...
Vacuum genesis
Vacuum genesis (zero-energy universe) is a scientific theory about the Big Bang that states that the universe began as a single particle arising from an absolute vacuum, similar to how virtual particl...
Uncertainty principle
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with ...
Quantum foam
Quantum foam (also referred to as space-time foam) is a concept in quantum mechanics devised by John Wheeler in 1955. The foam is supposed to be conceptualized as the foundation of the fabric of the u...
Topological defect
In mathematics and physics, a topological soliton or a topological defect is a solution of a system of partial differential equations or of a quantum field theory homotopically distinct from the vacuu...
Quantum annealing
Quantum annealing (QA) is a metaheuristic for finding the global minimum of a given objective function over a given set of candidate solutions (candidate states), by a process using quantum fluctuatio...
Vacuum Rabi oscillation
A vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation of an initially excited atom coupled to an electromagnetic resonator or cavity in which the atom alternately emits photon(s) into a single-mode electr...
Metric (mathematics)
In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set. A set with a metric is called a metric space. A metric induces a topology on...