Conscientious objection
A conscientious objector (CO) is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, and/or religion. In general, conscien...
War resister
A war resister is a person who resists war. The term can mean several things: resisting participation in all war, or a specific war, either before or after enlisting in, being inducted into, or being ...
Malcolm Kendall-Smith
Malcolm Kendall-Smith (born 1968/1969) is a former medical officer in the British Royal Air Force. He was born in Australia, raised in New Zealand and has dual British-New Zealand citizenship.He was t...
New York Draft Riots
The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed...
Canada and the Vietnam War
Canada did not fight in the Vietnam War and diplomatically it was "officially non-belligerent". The country's troop deployments to Vietnam were limited to a small number of national forces in 1973 to ...
Jeremy Hinzman
Jeremy Dean Hinzman (born in 1979 in Rapid City, South Dakota) was the first American Iraq war resister/deserter to seek refugee status in Canada.He enlisted in the U.S. army as a paratrooper with the...
Joshua Key
Joshua "Josh" Key is a United States Army deserter, who fled while on leave from the Iraq War, and is a current resident of Canada. He is the author, with Lawrence Hill, of The Deserter's Tale, a book...
Robin Long
Robin Long is one of several U.S. Army deserters who sought asylum in Canada because of his opposition to the Iraq war and became the first of those to be deported to the United States after being rej...
Conscientious objection in East Germany
There was a high level of conscientious objection in East Germany.
In April 1962 the GDR government introduced military conscription. The period of compulsory service was at least 18 months, and a...
Conscription in Germany
Germany had conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens between 1956 and 2011. On 22 November 2010, the German Minister of Defence proposed to the government to put conscription into abeyance on 1 Ju...
Conscription Crisis of 1918
The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the Government of the United Kingdom to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland during the First World War. Vigorous opposition was led b...
Siviilipalvelus
Siviilipalvelus, or civiltjänst ("civilian service"), is an alternative service in Finland. It is provided as an alternative to military service provided by Article 127 of the Finnish constitution for...
South African resistance to war
South African resistance to war has a long tradition, and a history that includes conscientious objectors, pacifists, deserters and draft dodgers, as well as those whose objections are based upon the ...
End Conscription Campaign
The End Conscription Campaign was an anti-apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF) and composed of conscientious objectors and their supporters in South Africa. It was forme...
Conscription in Australia
Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as national service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood. Australia currently has no conscripti...
Malaysian National Service
The National Service Training Programme, or Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN), is Malaysia's national service program. The conscripts are 18-year-old youths that are selectively drafted. The three...
Compulsory Military Training in New Zealand
Compulsory military training (CMT), a form of conscription, was used in New Zealand between 1909 and 1972. Both prior to and after this period, military training in New Zealand has been voluntary.
National Service in Singapore
National Service in Singapore, (commonly known as NS), requires all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent residents who have reached the age of 18 to register for national service ...
Conscription in the Republic of China
The Republic of China (Taiwan) has maintained a policy of conscription for all qualified males of military age since 1949.. The Taiwanese government used to plan to end it in 2014, but abolishing cons...
Conscription in Cyprus
Military service in the National Guard of the Republic of Cyprus is mandatory for males born of a Cypriot parent, members of the Greek Cypriot community. Its duration is 24 months. Until 2007, conscri...
Debs v. United States
Debs v. United States, 249 U.S. 211 (1919), was a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917.Eugene V. Debs was an American labor and political leader and five-time...
The Pax Program
The Pax Project was an American Mennonite service organization for conscientious objectors that operated overseas.
The Pax program operated between 1951 and 1976. It was first imagined by Calvin ...
Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy
Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy is a book written by Telford Taylor, the Chief Counsel Prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials.
The book Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy, published...
Paul Comly French
Paul Comly French (March 19, 1903 – June 3, 1960) was an American reporter, writer, anti-war activist and non-profit executive.
Paul C. French was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to a Quaker fa...
Voluntary ecological year
The voluntary ecological year in Germany (abbreviated FÖJ) is an educational and orientation year for teenagers and young adults of ages 16 through 27. The FÖJ can be attended only once and usually la...
Canada and Iraq War resisters
During the Iraq War, which began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq, there were United States military personnel who refused to participate, or continue to participate, in that specific war. Their refusal...
Einar Li
Einar Li (20 June 1880 – 11 February 1955) was a Norwegian newspaper editor and politician for the Labour and Social Democratic Labour parties. He was also known as a conscientious objector, for which...