Arab–Byzantine wars
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. Started during the initial Muslim conquests ...
Acritic songs
The Acritic songs (Greek: Ακριτικά τραγούδια "frontiersmen songs") are the heroic or epic poetry that emerged in the Byzantine Empire probably around the 9th century. The songs celebrated the expl...
Muslim conquest of Syria
The Muslim conquest of Syria (Arabic: الفتح الإسلامي لبلاد الشام) occurred in the first half of the 7th century, and refers to the conquest of region known as the Levant, later to become the Islamic P...
Leo of Tripoli
Leo of Tripoli (Greek: Λέων ὸ Τριπολίτης), known in Arabic as Rashīq al-Wardāmī (رشيق الوردامي), and Ghulām Zurāfa (غلام زرافة), was a Greek renegade and fleet commander for the Abbasid Caliphate ...
Mopsuestia
Mopsuestia (Greek: Μοψουεστία Mopsou(h)estia), later Mamistra, is the ancient city of Cilicia Campestris on the Pyramus (now Ceyhan River) located approximately 20 km (12 mi) east of anc...
Lykandos
Lykandos or Lycandus (Greek: Λυκανδός) was the name of a Byzantine fortress and military-civilian province (or thema), known as the Theme of Lykandos, in the 10th–11th centuries.
The fortress ...
Praecepta Militaria
The Praecepta Militaria is the Latin conventional title given to a Byzantine military treatise, written in ca. 965 by or on behalf of Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros Phokas (r. 963-969). Its Greek title ...
Kleisoura (Byzantine district)
In the Byzantine Empire, a kleisoura (Greek: κλεισούρα, "enclosure, defile") was a term traditionally applied to a fortified mountain pass and the military district protecting it. By the late 7th ...
Arab-Norman culture
The term Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture, Norman-Sicilian culture or, less inclusive, Arab-Norman culture respectively Norman-Arab culture, (sometimes referred to as "Arab-Norman civilization") refers t...
Tarsus, Mersin
Tarsus (/ˈtɑrsəs/; Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός; Armenian: Տարսոն) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Ar...
Giustiniano Participazio
Giustiniano Participazio (Latin: Agnellus Iustinianus Particiacus; died 829) was the eleventh (traditional) or ninth (historical) Doge of Venice from 825 to his death. His four years on the ducal ...
Battle of Maraj-al-Debaj
Battle of Marj-ud-Deebaj was fought between the Byzantine army, survivors from the conquest of Damascus, and the Rashidun Caliphate army in September 634. It was a successful raid after three days of ...
Battle of Hazir
The Battle of Hazir or Ma'arakah al-Haadhir(Arabic: معركة الحاضر‎) took place between the Byzantine army and the Rashidun army's elite cavalry, the Mobile guard. It took place in June 637, t...
Smbat VI Bagratuni
Smbat VI Bagratuni (ca. 670 – 726) was a member of the Bagratuni family who was presiding prince of Armenia from 691 to 711. During his reign, he frequently shifted alliances between the Byzantines, w...
Al-'Awasim
The al-ʿAwāṣim (Arabic: العواصم‎, "defences, fortifications"; sing. al-ʿāṣimah, "protectress") was the Arabic term used to refer to the Muslim side of the frontier zone between the Byzantine...
Fragment on the Arab Conquests
Fragment on the Arab Conquests are fragmentary notes that were written around the year 636 AD on the front blank pages of a sixth-century Syriac Christian Gospel manuscript which depict events from th...
Karabisianoi
The Karabisianoi (Greek: Καραβισιάνοι), sometimes anglicized as the Carabisians, were the mainstay of the Byzantine navy from the mid-7th century until the early 8th century. The name derives from...
De velitatione bellica
De velitatione bellica is the conventional Latin title for the Byzantine military treatise on skirmishing and guerrilla-type border warfare, composed circa 970. Its original Greek title is Περὶ Παραδρ...
Battle of Ajnadayn
The Battle of Ajnadayn (Arabic: معركة أجنادين‎), fought on July 30, 634, in an unknown location close to Beit Guvrin in present day Israel; it was the first major pitched battle between the ...
History of Islam in southern Italy
The history of Islam in southern Italy began with the first Muslim settlement in Sicily, at Mazara, which was occupied in 827. The subsequent rule of Sicily and Malta started in the 10th century. Isla...
Hadath
Al-Ḥadath al-Ḥamrā' (Arabic for "Hadath the Red") or Adata (Greek: Ἃδατα) was a town and fortress near the Taurus Mountains (modern southeastern Turkey), which played an important role in the Byza...
Karbeas
Karbeas (Greek: Καρβέας), or Karbaias (Καρβαίας), was a Paulician leader, who following the anti-Paulician pogroms in 843 abandoned his service in the Byzantine army and went over to the Arabs. Wi...