Instanton
An instanton (or pseudoparticle) is a notion appearing in theoretical and mathematical physics. An instanton is a classical solution to equations of motion with a finite, non-zero action, either in qu...
Large gauge transformation
Given a topological space M, a topological group G and a principal G-bundle over M, a global section of that principal bundle is a gauge fixing and the process of replacing one section by another is a...
Conformal anomaly
A conformal anomaly, scale anomaly, or Weyl anomaly is an anomaly, i.e. a quantum phenomenon that breaks the conformal symmetry of the classical theory.A classically conformal theory is a theory whic...
Konishi anomaly
In theoretical physics, the Konishi anomaly is the violation of the conservation of the Noether current associated with certain transformations in theories with N=1 supersymmetry. More precisely, this...
Anomaly matching condition
In quantum field theory, the anomaly matching condition by Gerard 't Hooft states that the calculation of any chiral anomaly by using the degrees of freedom of the theory at some energy scale, must no...
Central charge
In theoretical physics, a central charge is an operator Z that commutes with all the other symmetry operators. The adjective "central" refers to the center of the symmetry group—the subgroup of elemen...
Sphaleron
A sphaleron (Greek: σφαλερός "slippery") is a static (time-independent) solution to the electroweak field equations of the Standard Model of particle physics, and it is involved in processes that ...
Global anomaly
In theoretical physics, a global anomaly is a type of anomaly: in this particular case, it is a quantum effect that invalidates a large gauge transformation that would otherwise be preserved in the cl...
Mixed anomaly
In theoretical physics, a mixed anomaly is an example of an anomaly: it is an effect of quantum mechanics — usually a one-loop diagram — that implies that the classically valid general covariance and ...
Chiral anomaly
In physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current. In some theories of fermions with chiral symmetry, the quantization may lead to the breaking of this (global) chiral...
RST model
The Russo-Susskind-Thorlacius model or RST model in short is a modification of the CGHS model to take care of conformal anomalies. In the CGHS model, if we include Faddeev-Popov ghosts to gauge-fix di...
Gauge anomaly
In theoretical physics, a gauge anomaly is an example of an anomaly: it is an effect of quantum mechanics—usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory; i.e....
Parity anomaly
In theoretical physics a quantum field theory is said to have a parity anomaly if its classical action is invariant under a change of parity of the universe, but the quantum theory is not invariant.Th...
Gravitational anomaly
In theoretical physics, a gravitational anomaly is an example of a gauge anomaly: it is an effect of quantum mechanics–usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the general covariance of a theory of...
Anomaly (physics)
In quantum physics an anomaly or quantum anomaly is the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action to be a symmetry of any regularization of the full quantum theory. In classical physics an...