Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية‎ al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyah), was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended fr...
Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية‎, trans. Al-Ḫilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This ca...
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in the history of Islam during the Middle Ages when much of the Muslim world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultu...
Abbasid architecture
Abbasid architecture developed in the Abbasid Caliphate between 750 and 945, primarily in its heartland of Mesopotamia.The Abbasids inherited Persian architectural traditions in Mesopotamia, and were ...
History of Baghdad
This article documents the history of Baghdad. Baghdad (Arabic: بغداد‎ Baġdād) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. With a metropolitan area estimated at a population of 7,000,...
Siege of Baghdad (812-813)
The siege of Baghdad was a part of a civil war between al-Amin and al-Ma'mun for the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. The siege lasted from August 812 until September 813. The siege is described in great...
Caliphal Civil War (865-866)
The Caliphal Civil War of 865–866 was an armed conflict during the "Anarchy at Samarra" between the rival caliphs al-Musta'in and al-Mu'tazz, fought to determine who would gain control over the Abbasi...
Siege of Baghdad (1157)
The Siege of Baghdad was the last Seljuq attempt to capture Baghdad from the Abbasids. Caliph al-Muqtafi successfully defended his capital against the collation armies of Seljuk Sultan Muhammad of Ham...
Siege of Baghdad (1258)
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces a...
Abbasid-Carolingian alliance
An Abbasid–Carolingian alliance was attempted and partially formed during the 8th to 9th century through a series of embassies, rapprochements and combined military operations between the Frankish Car...
Abbasid caliphs
The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية‎ al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended fro...
Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid (Arabic: هَارُون الرَشِيد‎; hārūn ar-rašīd) (17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving...
Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was a Shia Islamic caliphate, which spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean...
Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe
From the 11th to 13th centuries, medieval Europe absorbed knowledge from Islamic civilization, which was then at its cultural peak. Of particular importance was the rediscovery of the ancient classic...
Byzantine-Arab Wars
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. Started during the initial Muslim conquests ...
Al-Mustakfi
Abdallah ibn al-Muktafi (Arabic: عبدالله بن المكتفي‎) (905 – September/October 949), better known by his regnal name al-Mustakfi bi-llah (Arabic: المستكفي بالله‎, "Desirous of Bein...
Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی‎ Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Fārābī; for other recorded variants of his name see below) , known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 87...
Al-Hadi
Abu Muhammad Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi(Arabic: أبو محمد موسى بن المهدي الهادي‎) (born: 147 AH [764 AD]; died: 170 AH [786 AD]) was the fourth Abbasid caliph who succeeded his father Al-Mahdi an...